Digital Cold Reading: The CSS History Hack

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Cold reading is a technique used by mentalists to simulate psychic powers and impress people. Essentially, the cold reader is supplying words and the other person supplies their meaning as well as hints for the reader.

The CSS history hack, which seems to impress quite a few people, is nothing more than the Web’s version of cold reading. Your impression is that any Web site can read your browser history. Now there is indeed an information leak and no Web site should get access to history information. But this leak is very small. It doesn’t reveal the history altogether to anyone daring to ask. The CSS history issue only gives us an oracle. We can ask the oracle whether a particular URL is in the history or not. So to find out that you’ve read this blog post we would have to ask the oracle about the precise URL of this post.

Nonetheless demonstrations of the history hack impress people. The trick is simple and similar to the cold reading technique. History hack demos use a set of URLs that leads to a hit for almost every Internet user on the world: Google, YouTube, Microsoft, Wikipedia, Flickr, Apple, Slashdot, Amazon, and so on. A mentalist would guess and suggest these until you start giving feedback on which to hook. The CSS history hack replaces this interaction with asking the oracle to avoid wrong guesses. The trick is really to use a set of Web sites that guarantees a hit, and use a minor information leak to remove the wrong guesses from the set that would spoil the effect. This works well with the top 20/top 50/top 1000 sites on the Web, but it won’t scale to arbitrary URLs.


About Sven Türpe

Sven Türpe is a computer scientist. His current research focus is on security engineering methods, techniques, and tools. All opinions expressed in this blog are his own.